Dexamethasone reduces death by up to one third in hospitalised patients with severe respiratory complications of COVID-19
In March 2020, the RECOVERY (Randomised Evaluation of COVid-19 thERapY) trial was established as a randomised clinical trial to test a range of potential treatments for COVID-19, including low-dose dexamethasone (a steroid treatment).

Over 11,500 patients have been enrolled in the RECOVERY trial from over 175 NHS hospitals in the UK. On 8 June, recruitment to the dexamethasone arm was halted since, in the view of the trial Steering Committee, sufficient patients had been enrolled to establish whether or not the drug had a meaningful benefit.

A total of 2104 patients were randomised to receive dexamethasone 6 mg once per day (either by mouth or by intravenous injection) for ten days and were compared with 4321 patients randomised to usual care alone. Among the patients who received usual care alone, 28-day mortality was highest in those who required ventilation (41%), intermediate in those patients who required oxygen only (25%), and lowest among those who did not require any respiratory intervention (13%). Dexamethasone reduced deaths by one-third in ventilated patients (rate ratio 0.65 [95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.88]; p=0.0003) and by one fifth in other patients receiving oxygen only (0.80 [0.67 to 0.96]; p=0.0021). There was no benefit among those patients who did not require respiratory support (1.22 [0.86 to 1.75]; p=0.14).

Based on these results, 1 death would be prevented by treatment of around 8 ventilated patients or around 25 patients requiring oxygen alone. Given the public health importance of these results, we are now working to publish the full details as soon as possible.

Peter Horby, Professor of Emerging Infectious Diseases in the Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, and one of the Chief Investigators for the trial, said: ‘Dexamethasone is the first drug to be shown to improve survival in COVID-19. This is an extremely welcome result. The survival benefit is clear and large in those patients who are sick enough to require oxygen treatment, so dexamethasone should now become standard of care in these patients. Dexamethasone is inexpensive, on the shelf, and can be used immediately to save lives worldwide.’

Martin Landray, Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology at the Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, one of the Chief Investigators, said: ‘Since the appearance of COVID-19 six months ago, the search has been on for treatments that can improve survival, particularly in the sickest patients.

These preliminary results from the RECOVERY trial are very clear – dexamethasone reduces the risk of death among patients with severe respiratory complications. COVID-19 is a global disease – it is fantastic that the first treatment demonstrated to reduce mortality is one that is instantly available and affordable worldwide.’ 

The UK Government’s Chief Scientific Adviser, Sir Patrick Vallance, said: ‘This is tremendous news today from the Recovery trial showing that dexamethasone is the first drug to reduce mortality from COVID-19. It is particularly exciting as this is an inexpensive widely available medicine. 

‘This is a ground-breaking development in our fight against the disease, and the speed at which researchers have progressed finding an effective treatment is truly remarkable. It shows the importance of doing high quality clinical trials and basing decisions on the results of those trials.’ 

About the RECOVERY trial

The RECOVERY trial is a large, randomised controlled trial of possible treatments for patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. Over 11,500 patients have been randomised to the following treatment arms, or no additional treatment: 

  • Lopinavir-Ritonavir (commonly used to treat HIV)
  • Low-dose Dexamethasone (a type of steroid, which typically used to reduce inflammation) 
  • Hydroxychloroquine (which has now been stopped due to lack of efficacy) 
  • Azithromycin (a commonly used antibiotic) 
  • Tocilizumab (an anti-inflammatory treatment given by injection) 
  • Convalescent plasma (collected from donors who have recovered from COVID-19 and contains antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 virus). 

Overall dexamethasone reduced the 28-day mortality rate by 17% (0.83 [0.74 to 0.92]; P=0.0007) with a highly significant trend showing greatest benefit among those patients requiring ventilation (test for trend p<0.001). But it is important to recognise that we found no evidence of benefit for patients who did not require oxygen and we did not study patients outside the hospital setting.

Follow-up is complete for over 94% of participants. The RECOVERY trial is conducted by the registered clinical trials units with the Nuffield Department of Population Health in partnership with the Nuffield Department of Medicine.

The trial is supported by a grant to the University of Oxford from UK Research and Innovation/National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and by core funding provided by NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the Department for International Development, Health Data Research UK, the Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, and NIHR Clinical Trials Unit Support Funding.

The RECOVERY trial involves many thousands of doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and research administrators at over 175 hospitals across the whole of the UK, supported by staff at the NIHR Clinical Research Network, NHS DigiTrials, Public Health England, Public Health Scotland, Department of Health & Social Care, and the NHS in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. 

SOURCE:

Low-cost dexamethasone reduces death by up to one third in hospitalised patients with severe respiratory complications of COVID-19. Oxford University News Release, 16/06/2020 (http://www.ox.ac.uk/news/2020-06-16-dexamethasone-reduces-death-hospitalised-patients-severe-respiratory-complications)

further
reading

cosmetic products

May Butylphenyl Methylpropional be used in Cosmetic Products?

Butylphenyl Methylpropional, also known as Lilial, is a fragrance ingredient that has been used for years in several cosmetic and non-cosmetic products. Nevertheless, some concerns have been expressed regarding the use of this ingredient and its risk to consumers. According to an amendment to the CLP Regulation, the use of Butylphenyl Methylpropional will be prohibited in cosmetic products from 1st March 2022.

Read More »
cosmetic products

How are Cosmetic Products Regulated in the United Arab Emirates?

The United Arab Emirates (UAE) are an emerging market for the beauty industry. Cosmetics and personal care products supplied or sold in the UAE must comply with the health and safety requirements set out in UAE legislation. Overall, the process for importing a cosmetic product into the UAE market from the European Union can be quite straightforward since the UAE has aligned several of its requirements with the European Cosmetic Regulation.

Read More »
cosmetic products

European Commission Report on Nanomaterials – 2021

The European Commission is required to submit to the European Parliament and the Council an annual status report on the use of nanomaterials in cosmetic products and to review the provisions concerning nanomaterials in the European Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 on cosmetic products. In July 2021, the Commission has issued its latest annual report on this subject.

Read More »
cosmetic products

New Labelling Requirements for Cosmetic Products in China

The new Cosmetics Supervision and Administration Regulation (CSAR) was enacted in China. The National Medical Products Administration (NMPA) has released standards for the testing of cosmetic products’ safety profile and efficacy claims. The NMPA has also published the Administrative Measures on Cosmetics Labelling, an updated set of requirements for the label of cosmetic products made available in the Chinese market.

Read More »
cosmetic products

50th Amendment to the IFRA Code of Practice

On June 30, IFRA announced the notification of the 50th Amendment to the IFRA Standards. The Standards form the basis for the globally accepted and recognized risk management system for the safe use of fragrance ingredients and are part of the IFRA Code of Practice. The amendment introduced one update to the Standards and one new prohibited substance – Mintlacton.

Read More »
medical devices

EN ISO 13485:2016 – Amendment 11 has been published!

The European standardisation bodies CEN and CENELEC published EN ISO 13485:2016+A11:2021 featuring new annexes ZA and ZB that link the requirements of the MDR (Regulation EU 2017/745) and the IVDR (Regulation EU 2017/746), respectively, to specific clauses of the standard.

Read More »
cosmetic products

How are Cosmetic Products Regulated in India?

The different expectations and needs of consumers are continually changing and therefore the cosmetic industry needs to be gradually evolve to meet the new consumer’s demand. In this regard, India has recently introduced some regulatory updates to ensure that cosmetics placed on the market are safer for all consumers.

Read More »
cosmetic products

Is Phenoxyethanol Safe for Use in All Cosmetic Products?

Phenoxyethanol is a common preservative used in cosmetic and personal care products worldwide. It has been subject to various safety assessments and most concluded about its safety under the current most frequent uses. Nevertheless, some concerns were raised by the French Agency ANSM, particularly regarding its use in products intended for the nappy area in children up to 3 years old.

Read More »
cosmetic products

Cannabis-Derived Ingredients in Cosmetic Products

Cannabis-derived ingredients are popular compounds with interesting properties. There is specific EU and national legislation regarding cannabis-derived ingredients, identifying which extracts and derivatives may be used in cosmetic products. There are several aspects to consider to ensure compliance when adding these compounds to cosmetics and personal care products.

Read More »
cosmetic products

Cosmetic Products Testing in the European Union

A cosmetic product which is made available on the European Union market needs to prove that it is safe for consumers. Apart from the mandatory testing, depending on the claims to be used or the type of cosmetic product to be placed on the market, additional tests may be required.

Read More »
COVID-19

New EU Commission Recommendation for PPE and Medical Devices – COVID-19

PPE and Medical Devices have proven to be essential for healthcare workers in the efforts to contain the COVID-19 outbreak. In March 2020, the EU Commission urged the economic operators to increase rapid supply into the market. Currently, the Commission considers that the conditions for exceptional access to market are no longer met, limiting the placing of PPE and Medical Devices which have not successfully undergone the relevant conformity assessment procedures applicable on the EU market.

Read More »